Šta je 5G mreža i da li je štetna?

5G je peta generacija bežične tehnologije koja je započela svoje široko korištenje 2019. Kao i prethodnim standardima, natkrivena područja su podijeljena u regije nazvane “ćelije”, koje servisiraju pojedine antene. Gotovo svaki veliki dobavljač telekomunikacijskih usluga u razvijenom svijetu implementira antene ili ih uskoro namjerava implementirati. Frekvencijski spektar od 5G dijeli se na milimetarske valove, srednjopojasne i niskopojasne. Niskopojasni raspon koristi sličan frekvencijski raspon kao i prethodnik, 4G.




5G milimetarski val je najbrži, sa stvarnim brzinama često je 1–2 Gb / s niže. Frekvencije su iznad 24 GHz i dosežu do 72 GHz što je iznad donje granice ekstremno visoke frekvencije. Doseg je kratak, pa je potrebno više ćelija. Milimetrijski talasi imaju poteškoće pri prelasku mnogih zidova i prozora, pa je zatvorena pokrivenost ograničena.

Srednji opseg 5G najšire je raspoređen, u preko 20 mreža. Brzine u opsegu od 100 MHz obično su niže od 100–400 Mb / s. U laboratoriji i povremeno na terenu brzine mogu prelaziti i jedan gigabit u sekundi. Ugrađene frekvencije su od 2,4 GHz do 4,2 GHz. Sprint i China Mobile koriste 2,5 GHz, dok su drugi uglavnom između 3,3 i 4,2 GHz, raspon koji nudi povećani domet. Mnoga područja se mogu pokriti jednostavno dogradnjom postojećih kula, što smanjuje troškove.

5G niskopojasni kapacitet nudi sličan kapacitet kao napredni 4G. U Sjedinjenim Državama, T-Mobile i AT&T pokrenuli su usluge niskog opsega prve sedmice decembra 2019. T-Mobile CTO Neville Ray upozorava da brzina njegovog 600 MHz 5G može biti čak 25 Mbit / s. AT&T, koristeći 850 MHz, obično će isporučiti manje od 100 Mbit / s u 2019. Performanse će se poboljšati, ali možda neće biti mnogo veće od dobrih 4G u istom spektru.

Verizon, AT&T i gotovo svi davaoci usluga 5G u 2019. godini imaju latencije između 25–35 milisekundi. “Kašnjenje vazduha” (između telefona i tornja) u opremi za 2019. godinu je 8–12 ms. Latencija na poslužitelju, dalje u mrežu, povećala se na prosječno ~ 30 ms, 25-40% niža od tipično raspoređenih 4G. Dodavanje “Edge Servers” blizu kula može smanjiti latenciju na 10-20 ms. Niže latencije, poput često prikazanog 1 ms, su udaljene godinama i ne uključuju vrijeme na server.

Industrijski projekt 3GPP definira svaki sistem koji koristi softver “5G NR” (5G New Radio) kao “5G”, definicija koja je u opću upotrebu došla krajem 2018. Prije toga, neki su rezervirali termin za sisteme koji isporučuju frekvencije od 20 GHz za zajedničko pozivanje na poziv ITU IMT-2020. 3GPP će dostaviti svoj 5G NR ITU-u. Pored tradicionalnih usluga mobilne telefonije, 5G NR također rješava posebne zahtjeve za privatne mobilne mreže u rasponu od industrijske IoT do kritične komunikacije.

Spektar koji se koristi u raznim 5G prijedlozima bit će blizak udaljenom snimanju sasatelita za promatranje vremena i Zemlje, posebno za nadgledanje vodene pare. Smetnje će se pojaviti i potencijalno biti značajne bez efikasne kontrole. Porast smetnji već se dogodio kod nekih drugih korišćenja neposrednih opsega. Mješanje u satelitske operacije s numeričkim performansama predviđanja vremena sa znatno štetnim uticajima na ekonomsku i javnu sigurnost u područjima kao što su komercijalno zrakoplovstvo.

Pitanja nadzora

Zbog straha potencijalnih stranih korisnika od strane kineskih dobavljača opreme, nekoliko zemalja (uključujući Australiju i Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo već 2019.) poduzele su radnje kako bi ograničile ili uklonile uporabu kineske opreme u njihovim odgovarajućim 5G mrežama. Kineski prodavci i kineska vlada demantovali su ove tvrdnje.

U 2019. Sjedinjene Države preko svog FBI-ja, britanskog GCHQ-a, drugih obavještajnih agencija i nekoliko organizacija za kazneno gonjenje snažno su uključene u prilagođavanje standarda nadzora. Sigurnosna arhitektura 5G prilagođava se kako bi se omogućilo prikupljanje što više metapodataka za potrebe masovnog nadzora. To se događa kroz sastanke 3SALI organizacije za standardizaciju 3GPP.

Izvješće koje su objavile Europska komisija i Europska agencija za cybersecurity opisuje sigurnosna pitanja koja se tiču ​​5G-a dok se notorno pokušava izbjeći spominjanje Huaweija. Izvještaj upozorava na uporabu jednog dobavljača za prijevozničku 5G infrastrukturu, posebno onu koja se nalazi izvan Europske unije. (Nokia i Ericsson jedini su evropski proizvođači opreme 5G.)

Zabrinutost za zdravlje
Razvoj tehnologije izazvao je niz odgovora na zabrinutosti da bi 5G zračenje moglo imati štetne zdravstvene učinke. Mišljenje objavljeno u odjeljku internetskog bloga Scientific American tvrdi da kompletno znanstveno istraživanje njegovih učinaka nije provedeno i da može postojati rizik po zdravlje. Drugi članak u istoj publikaciji nudi pogled sa obje strane rasprave i završava pozivom na više i kvalitetnije studije o tom pitanju. Wired je karakterizirao strahove da bi tehnologija mogla uzrokovati rak, neplodnost, autizam, Alzheimerovu bolest i misterioznu smrt ptica kao “teorije zavjere”. Američki FCC i gotovo svi drugi regulatori tvrde da 5G zračenje neće imati značajne zdravstvene efekte.

U aprilu 2019., grad Bruxelles u Belgiji, blokirao je suđenje 5G zbog zakona o zračenju. U Ženevi u Švicarskoj planirana nadogradnja na 5G zaustavljena je iz istog razloga. Švicarsko udruženje telekomunikacija (ASUT) saopćilo je da studije nisu u stanju pokazati da 5G frekvencije imaju bilo kakav zdravstveni utjecaj. Nekoliko švicarskih kantona usvojilo je moratorijume na 5G tehnologiju iz zdravstvenih razloga, iako savezne službe zadužene za okoliš i telekomunikacije kažu da kantoni za to nisu nadležni.

Dr. Paul Ben-Ishai, član hebrejskog sveučilišta u Jerusalimskom odsjeku za fiziku, nedavno je objasnio kako ljudski znojni kanali djeluju kao niz spiralnih antena kada su izloženi talasnim duljinama od 5G. Kada se to dogodi, EM valovi djeluju u složenim oblicima, što rezultira potencijalnim efektima na zdravlje.

Zabrinutosti za zdravlje povezane sa zračenjem iz kula mobitela i mobitela nisu nove. Iako elektromagnetska preosjetljivost nije naučno priznata, tvrdi se da su difuzni simptomi, poput glavobolje i umora, posljedica izloženosti elektromagnetskim poljima kao što su ona koja nose 5G i Wi-Fi. Međutim, 5G tehnologija predstavlja nekoliko novih pitanja koja odstupaju od 4G tehnologije, naime, viših mikrotalasnih frekvencija od 2,6 GHz do 28 GHz u odnosu na 700–2500 MHz koje obično koristi 4G. Kako viši milimetarski val korišten u 5G ne prodire u predmete lako, to zahtijeva postavljanje antena na svakih nekoliko stotina metara, što je izazvalo zabrinutost u javnosti.

Međunarodni apel Europskoj uniji upućen 13. septembra 2017. prikupio je preko 180 potpisa naučnika koji predstavljaju 35 jedinstvenih zemalja. Oni izražavaju zabrinutost zbog povezivanja od 10 do 20 milijardi na mrežu 5G i posljedičnog porasta izloženosti RF-EMF koji stalno utječu na globalno stanovništvo. U apelu se poziva i na zaključak Međunarodne agencije za istraživanje raka (IARC) iz 2011. da su frekvencije 30 kHz – 300 GHz vjerovatno kancerogene za ljude. Ovo je istraživanje očigledno potvrdilo Nacionalnim toksikološkim programom (NTP) koji je proučavao dugotrajno izlaganje RF zračenju na štakorima i uočio značajno povećanje formiranja raka.

Kritičari 5G kažu da ove milimetrske talasne dužine nisu široko testirane u široj javnosti. Većina stručnjaka vjeruje da je potrebno još naučnih istraživanja, iako se milimetarska tehnologija već desetljećima koristi u tehnologiji kao što je radar, postoji značajno istraživanje vezano za povezanost raka na upotrebu radarskih uređaja od strane policijskih službenika.

Senator Sjedinjenih Država Richard Blumenthal u 2018. godini rekao je “Ne znam pouzdane studije – klasificirane ili na neki drugi način koje su rađene oko 5G tehnologije. Možda je vojska postojala, ali koliko znam, nisu ispunili specifikacije koje su potrebne u pogledu broja životinja ili drugog načina mjerenja koji bi bio potreban.

2018. godine Dr. Martin Pall, profesor emeritusa biohemije i osnovnih medicinskih nauka na Državnom univerzitetu u Washingtonu, smatra “Stavljanje desetine miliona 5G antena bez ijednog testa biološke sigurnosti mora biti najgluplja ideja koju je iko u povijesti imalo. ” On navodi povećani broj nizova s ​​fazama, visoke energetske impulse koji lako mogu probiti kroz ljudsko tijelo i veliki dio antena potreban za rad mreže kao potencijalne izazove zabrinutosti.

Pišući u New York Timesu za 2019. godinu, William Broad je izvijestio da je RT America proširio 5G povezujući programiranje sa štetnim zdravstvenim efektima, poput “raka mozga, neplodnosti, autizma, tumora srca i Alzheimerove bolesti”. Broad tvrdi da su se takve tvrdnje u 2019. povećale i proširile na stotine blogova i web stranica, ali im nedostaje „naučna podrška“.

Kako izloženost elektromagnetskim poljima može utjecati na ljude ostaje sporno područje, a studije nisu dale jasne dokaze o utjecaju na sisare, ptice ili insekte. Nedostatak jasnih dokaza koji bi omogućili razvoj smjernica o izloženosti tehnologiji 5G ostavlja otvorenu mogućnost nenamjernih bioloških posljedica.

Prema pisanju CNET-a, “Članovi parlamenta u Holandiji također pozivaju vladu da bliže pogleda 5G. Švicarska poduzima korake za nadzor utjecaja 5G na ljude. Nekoliko čelnika Kongresa pisalo je Federalnim komunikacijama Slične zabrinutosti bile su postavljene u Vermontu i Nju Hempšir.

U februaru 2019. senator Blumenthal ispitivao je predstavnike industrije 5G o rizicima zdravlja i povezanim studijama, zaključivši kako industrija nije napravila nijednu studiju, niti je bila u toku.

U julu 2019. godine New York Times napisao je članak u kojem je detaljno opisao kako je utjecajna studija iz 2000. godine koja je utvrdila da bežična tehnologija nosi veliku šansu da uzrokuje štetne zdravstvene efekte kod ljudi napravila naučnu grešku propuštajući proučavanje studije zaštitne prednosti ljudske kože. U članku se tvrdi da mnogi navodni zdravstveni problemi oko 5G i drugih bežičnih tehnologija kod ljudi nisu naučno dokazani.

U trećem tromjesečju 2019., nakon kampanje aktivističkih grupa, niz malih lokaliteta u Velikoj Britaniji, uključujući Totnes, Brighton i Hove, Glastonbury i Frome, donio je rezolucije protiv daljnje implementacije 5G infrastrukture. Na primjer, Gradsko vijeće Totnes-a usvojilo je simbolični moratorij na izgradnju dodatnih 5G jarbola čekajući na dodatna istraživanja o učincima 5G na zdravlje.

Primjene


Automobili
5G Automotive Association promovira C-V2X komunikacijsku tehnologiju koja će se prvi put implementirati u 4G. Omogućuje komunikaciju između vozila i komunikaciju između vozila i infrastrukture, što dovodi do povećanja autonomnih (IoT) automobila i IoT (Internet of Things).




Stručnjaci autoindustrije vjeruju da će ugradnja 5G tehnologije u nadolazeće automobile koji se voze biti od ključne važnosti u pomaganju autonomnim automobilima da ostvare svoj puni potencijal (Llanasas, 2019). Brzina ove tehnologije poboljšat će mogućnosti autonomnih vozila čineći ih istovremeno učinkovitim (Llanasas, 2019). Na primjer, trenutna mreža 4G nema brzinu potrebnu za osiguravanje samovozećih vozila koja bi mogla spriječiti katastrofalne nesreće (Llanasas, 2019).

Javna sigurnost
Očekuje se da će kritični „push-to-talk“ (MCPTT) i kritički video i podaci biti kritički poboljšani u 5G.

Zdravstvo
Aspekt 5G ultra-pouzdane komunikacije sa niskim kašnjenjem (URLLC) mogao bi poboljšati teleheziju, daljinsko nadgledanje pacijenata i daljinsku operaciju za pacijente ili medicinske ustanove sa manje pristupa postojećim mrežama velike brzine.

Fiksna bežična mreža
Fiksne bežične veze namijenjene zamjeni širokopojasne mreže fiksne mreže (ADSL, VDSL, optička i DOCSIS veza) sa 5G vezama.

Pametni dom
5G koristi koncept pametne kuće, koji je automatizirani dom opremljen rasvjetom, grijanjem ili drugim elektroničkim uređajima kojima se može daljinski upravljati pametnim telefonom ili računarom. U usporedbi s postojećim bežičnim tehnologijama kao što su WLAN, Bluetooth Low Energy, Zigbee, Z-Wave i druge takve tehnologije, 5G će doprinijeti uspjehu pametnih domova pružajući pouzdane i korisničke veze s uređajima s različitim zahtjevima performansi.

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